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An important April 2021 study by Australian researchers found that 88% of gender dysphoric children and adolescents had mental health co-morbidities, including anxiety and depression, and very high rates of “adverse childhood experiences,” particularly unresolved childhood loss or trauma. Autism rates were disproportionately high as well.


Australian children and adolescents with gender dysphoria: Clinical presentations and challenges experienced by a multidisciplinary team and gender service

Authors: Kasia Kozlowska, Georgia McClure, Catherine Chudleigh, Ann M Maguire, Danielle Gessler, Stephen Scher, Geoffrey R Ambler
First Published April 22, 2021